外教英语口语陪练,提高英语口语最好的方法
首页  |  常见问题  |  联系我们  |  外教一览  |  课程价格  |  课程介绍  |  新闻报道  |  学员评论  |  下载中心  |  澳洲留学
您当前的位置:首页 > 英语新闻

雅思阅读中的长难句分析|不可小觑的雅思阅读逻辑关系词|雅思阅读出题点高频关键词

雅思阅读中的长难句分析|不可小觑的雅思阅读逻辑关系词|雅思阅读出题点高频关键词

在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 (noun clauses)。名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组,它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词性从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、介词宾语从句等。

  主语从句在复合句中用作主语的从句称为主语从句 (subject clause)。引导主语从句的关联词有从属连词、疑问代词、疑问副词、缩合连接代词、缩合连接副词等。如:

  ★ That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them。

  很明显,她们的确是亲姊妹,她们的脸型很相似。(关联词是从属连词that)★ Who should be responsible for the senior citizens has been widely discussed in our community。雅思阅读考试中有很多长句,而考生如果语法方面有任何一点差错,或者不擅长于长句短读(迅速找出一个长句的主句即主谓宾/主系表),都会在雅思阅读考试中失利。因此考生们在备考的过程中,对于英语中的从句必须要有很好的掌握,而雅思阅读考试中出现频率最高的从句之一就是名词性从句。谁应该对老年人负责这个问题在社区里被广泛讨论。(关联词是疑问代词who)★ Where we can dispose of the increasing rubbish is a great headache to many governments。

  在哪儿处置日益增多的垃圾对很多政府而言是件头痛的事。(关联词是疑问副词where)★ Whoever pollutes the environment should be punished。

  不论谁污染环境都应该受到惩罚。(关联词是缩合连接代词whoever)★ Wherever you are is my home—my only home。

  你所在的任何地方就是我的家——我唯一的家。(关联词是缩合连接副词wherever)有时可以用it作为形式主语,将真实主语从句置于句末。如:

  1. It is probable that the nocturnal trades go way back in the ancestry of all mammals。

  很可能这种夜间的谋生可以追溯至所有哺乳动物的祖先。

  2. It should be no surprise then that among mathematicians and architects, left-handers tend to be more common and there are more left-handed males than females。

  在数学家和建筑学家中,左撇子更常见并且左撇子的男性比女性要多,这并不惊奇。

  3. It is reported that millions of people die of water-related disease each year。

  据报道每年有成千上百万人死于和水有关的疾病。

  表语从句在复合句中用作表语的从句称为表语从句 (predictive clause)。引导表语从句的关联词有疑问代词、疑问副词、缩合连接代词、从属连词等。如:

  ★ The problem is who they can rely on。

  问题是他们能依赖谁呢。(关联词是疑问代词who)★ The question is how they have achieved this。

  问题是他们是怎样完成的。(关联词是疑问副词how)★ He looked just as he had looked ten years before。

  他看起来还和十年前一样。(关联词是从属连词as)★ Indeed acting as a tourist is one of the defining characteristics of being ‘modern’ and the popular concept of tourism is that it is organized within particular places and occurs for regularized periods of time。

  确实作为一个游客是“现代”的定义性特点之一,并且旅游的普遍性观念是它在某个特定地点组织并且发生于规律性的时间段。(关联词是从属连词that)宾语从句在复合句中用作宾语的从句称为宾语从句 (object clause)。引导宾语从句的关联词有从属连词、疑问代词、疑问副词、缩合连接代词、缩合连接副词等。如:

  ★ Animal right activists claim that animal tests are cruel, inhumane and unnecessary。

  动物权益保护声称动物实验很残忍、没人道和不必要。(关联词是从属连词that)★ I know he has succeeded。

  我知道他已经成功了。(在非正式文体中关联词that被省去)以上即是雅思阅读名词性从句的详细内容,大家在备考过程中可以将以上提到的几项实际引用到雅思阅读备考当中,以便更好的应对雅思考试。

  雅思阅读考试对信息的定位考查很严格,理解掌握能力要求很高,所以为了能够准确定位,一定要理解文章的句型结构,这样才能更加对考生有所帮助。

雅思阅读中的长难句分析|不可小觑的雅思阅读逻辑关系词|雅思阅读出题点高频关键词

作为学术类国际上权威性的考试,雅思考试有其严肃的试题内容,即使雅思题型多达十类,富于变化,考点也在文中各处出现。但在雅思这复杂出题方式中,始终会把对英语篇章结构和行文规律的理解作为阅读的一项基本要求重点考查。因此加强这方面的学习研究是从根本上提高应试能力的途径。本文仅从英语行文结构中逻辑关系词的作用及其阅读功能这一具体方面作初步探讨。

  关于逻辑关系词在阅读中的作用,我们首先来看一段文字:

  the discourse markers signal relationships: between different parts of the discourse … the main reason for studying them is their usefulness in helping the reader to work out the meaning of difficult text. They often show the relationship the writer intends between two parts of the text, so if you can understand one part, the discourse marker is a possible key to the other part. (Christine Nuttall, 1996. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language, Heinemann)

  关于“discourse marker”,P.H.Matthews在其Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics (Oxford University Press) 一书中是这样描述的:Any of a variety of units whose function is within a larger discourse rather than an individual sentence or clause: e.g. but then in But then he might be late. “discourse marker”

  虽然范围更加广泛一些,但从以上文字不难看出,它包括了我们所熟悉的逻辑关系词(即文章中用于表示并列,转折,举例,因果,递进,让步,总结等逻辑关系的固定单词或词组)。也由此可见,特别重视形式逻辑和思维分析的英语行文,在词语之间和句子之间往往会借助各种逻辑关系词清楚表达思维逻辑和语意关系。因此了解和掌握逻辑关系词可以帮助我们把握文章中语意的转换和发展,理解文章重点表达的意思。

  具体到雅思阅读,逻辑关系词在解题中体现出两大功能 :

  一、语意推断

  语意推断主要是运用于重点题型之一的摘要题(Summary)。具体是指根据空格所在句及前后句的逻辑关系词,分析词语之间,句子之间的语意关系,推断出所缺单词的大致含义。

  例如:

  1.剑4 / P77 / Q38

  Some corpora include a wide range of language while others are used to focus on a particular linguistic feature.

  根据while这个表示对比或转折的逻辑关系词,可以判断它前后部分是对比或反义关系。“a wide range of language”指的是语言研究的广泛的各个方面,可以预判空格处应是指具体的方面。

  二、定位

  根据对历年雅思真题的总结分析,雅思阅读考试的一个重要规律是:题干中的句子之间,词语之间的逻辑关系在原文中一般不变(但表现方式可能会变)。这一规律使得逻辑关系词可以有效地协助题干关键词在原文中定位答案信息源。尤其在摘要题(Summary)中这一方法使用频率很高。

  例如:

  1.剑5 / P50 / Q30-31

  题干:In Britain, moreover, scientists worried that English had neither the technical vocabulary nor the grammatical resources to express their ideas.

  原文:First, it lacked the necessary technical vocabulary. Second, it lacked the grammatical resources required to represent the world … (Para.7)

  题干中出现的neither…nor…是连接两个否定概念的并列逻辑关系词。原文中对应出现了完全相同的逻辑关系,即first, it lacked …, second it lacked …(表现方式有所变化)。我们可根据这种对应的逻辑关系在原文中快速定位答案信息源。

  2.剑5 / P50 / Q33-34

  题干:Although English was then overtaken by German, it developed again in the 19th century as a direct result of the industrial revolution.

  原文:In the following century much of this momentum was lost as German established itself as the leading European language of science. … However, in the 19th century scientific English again enjoyed substantial lexical growth as the industrial revolution created the need for new technical vocabulary.

  题干中出现的两种逻辑关系均在原文中对应出现。一是表示转折关系的although, 对应于原文中的however;二是表示因果关系的as a direct result of 对应于原文中表因果的逻辑关系词as。很显然,这对于题干信息的定位意义重大。

  3.剑5 / P70 / Q25-26

  题干:To deal with this, Stanley suggests the use of artificial floods in the short term, and increasing the amount of water available through desalination in the longer term.

  原文:In the immediate future, Stanley believes that one solution would be to make artificial floods to flush out the delta waterways, in the same way that natural floods did before the construction of the dams. He says, however, that in the long term an alternative process such as desalination may have to be used to increase the amount of water available.

  题干中出现了表示递进的逻辑关系词in the short term … in the longer term …。快速查读原文,可定位于文中相同的逻辑结构in the immediate future … in the long term …。

  另外,对雅思真题文章进行精读训练的同学会发现,除了以上两大功能之外,逻辑关系词在原文中的位置还常常是命题考点最集中的地方。因此学习和掌握逻辑关系词在阅读中的功能和作用,将对提高答题的速度起关键性的作用。同时,能够熟练运用逻辑关系词对于写出条理清楚,层次分明的雅思作文也大有帮助。

  附:雅思考试中常见的逻辑关系词

  1.表示并列关系

  likewise once again/once more in (much) the same way (manner) similarly/similar to vice versa also/as well as not only … but also … both … and … neither … nor … like/just like as/just as equally namely or and

  2.表示转折关系

  but/yet/whereas however otherwise in contrast (to) conversely though/although nevertheless unlike in spite of despite on the contrary even if/even though

  on the one hand …, on the other hand … instead (of) not as … as … rather than even so vary different from differ from

  while

  3.表示举例

  for example/for instance/e.g. such as that is/namely/i.e.

  in other words in general/in particular a case in point is especially specifically

  4.表示因果关系

  as a result as a consequence consequently so/therefore/thus then for this reason hence accordingly because/because of owing to thanks to on account of

  since due to …, for as this is why

  5.表示递进关系

  and then as well as again another also/too in addition (to) additionally additional besides (that) moreover furthermore not only … but also … what’s more

  6.表示让步关系

  though/although while even though/even if nevertheless in spite of/despite admittedly

  7. 表示总结

  in a word in brief in short above all all in all on the whole in general to conclude/in conclusion to sum up/to summarize/in summary (编辑:HD)

雅思阅读中的长难句分析|不可小觑的雅思阅读逻辑关系词|雅思阅读出题点高频关键词

雅思阅读关系词一:表转折

  but, however, yet, in fact, on the other hand;

  A, but B: 否定A而肯定B,则A,B两部分内容是相反的。

  例如:Computerized data storage and electronic mail were to have heralded the paper less office. But, contrary to expectations, paper consumption throughout the world shows no sign of abating .

  解释:paper less 表示负向,则but后no sign of abating 表示正向,所以abating是表示负向的词。

  总结:此种方法有利于在不认识单词的前提下读懂句子意思,很有帮助,但一定要练习,而且要敏感。

  练习:The marginal costs of generating electricity from nuclear energy may be tiny, but , as the technology now stands, 雅思阅读文章总是冗长,每次埋头找答案时间总是不够,如果你和小编一样,雅思阅读每每在最后一分钟挣扎着还在填答题卡,那就考虑下做题方法吧。雅思小编为童鞋们整理雅思阅读中常见关键词,用这些词汇仅找关键句看结构就能选出题目,词汇如下:huge and uncertain costs are involved in building the power stations, dealing with spent fuel, and decommissioning.

  英语基础差,雅思阅读有问题? 咨询100教育雅思名师,寻求稳步提升雅思成绩好方法!

  雅思阅读关系词二:表让步

  (1)although:although A, B:尽管有A,B还是出现了(A,B互不影响)若A是正,那B就是负的。

  例如:Although the world regards Asia as the focus of an economic and industrial miracle, without adequate supplies of food, Lampe says, chaos could easily result in many countries.

  解释:miracle奇迹,表正向,则but后的chaos是一个表负向的词。

  (2)while:五个含义:

  A. although:虽然,尽管

  B. as long as:只要

  C. whereas, but:表转折

  D.when:当。。。的时候

  E. n. 表一段时间

  例如:While ducks offer many advantages over hens, they must be given greater quality of food, especially if regular eggs are desired.

  解释:原文在本段之前讲鸭子的好,在本段之后讲它的不好。

  (3)Albeit:尽管,虽然

  例如:Albeit true but not now.

  雅思阅读关系词三:表并列:A and B

  A...and B...

  (1) 并列双方性质相同;

  (2) 当A、B都比较复杂时,应该从最后一项找起,根据B的形式到前文找到A

  例如:The modern city consists of monstrous edifices and of dark, narrow streets full of petrol fumes and toxic gases, torn by the noise of the taxicabs, lorries and buses, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds.

  解释:此句话中共有四个and ,第一个and 并列of 结构,第二个and 并列fumes和toxic,第三个and并列taxicabs, lorries 和buses, 第四个and并列full of …, torn by… 和thronged…

  雅思阅读关系词四:表递进:没有转折的意思,后项承接上文

  A furthermore B

  A moreover B

  A besides B

  A为正向,B 仍为正向。

  雅思阅读关系词五:表顺序或过程

  (1) first, then, next, later on, finally

  (2) 1st, 2nd, 3rd…

  (3) in the first place, in the second place…

  (4) before…, after…

  (5) once, until, as soon as,…

  雅思阅读关系词六:特殊的关键词

      人名,地名,时间,数字,生词(这是最好的定位标准,多以A---A形式重现)

  雅思阅读关系词七:比较级,类比

  对比

  (1) as…as, like 类比

  (2) more…than, unlike 对比

  (3) 不同的时间导致强的对比关系

  例如:一段讲1840年,…

  1919年.。。

  二段讲2003年出现了A++(生词)…

  问题是,2003年人们有了A++, 1840年的时候人们没有什么?

  (4) 不同的地点导致强对比关系

  例如:In Australia, only,….

  In Asia, many, A(生词)

  问题是,Australia缺什么?

  雅思阅读关系词八:例如

      A for example = :=—— B     A是理论,B是解释

  雅思阅读关系词九:因果关系

  (1) 大因果关系/分句间因果关系(即:原因、结果是两句话)

  because, in that, as, since, for, so(that), therefore, thus, hence, as a result

  (2) 小因果关系/句内因果关系(在一句话中,通过v.来表达)

  例如:Increased air temperature brought about higher sea levels.

  Cause, lead to, result in/ from, contribute to, pose, help, create, affect, influence, attribute to.

  Attribute A to B, 把A归因于B (因为B所以A)

雅思阅读中的长难句分析|不可小觑的雅思阅读逻辑关系词|雅思阅读出题点高频关键词

 

 

 

     

 本站热卖宝贝
外教一对一英语口语陪练,提高口语最快捷径
50元
外教雅思一对一口语陪练 冲7分
50元
英卡翻译-皇冠信誉,已服务上千企业及个人
2元
外教英语作文、雅思作文修改 提高英语写作能力
32元
英语面试不用愁,外教一对一辅导
50元

Copyright © 2008, All rights reserved.  英卡网络科技有限公司  沪ICP备07501474号