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雅思写作中常见错误经典归纳|雅思写作关注细节|雅思大作文主体部分如何构思

雅思写作中常见错误经典归纳|雅思写作关注细节|雅思大作文主体部分如何构思

 一. 不一致(disagreements)

  所谓不一致不光指主谓不一致,它还包括了数的不一致 时态不一致及代词不一 致等.

  例1. when one have money ,he can do what he want to .

  (人一旦有了钱,他就能想干什么就干什么.)

  剖析:one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has ;同理,want应改为wants.本句是典型的主谓不一致.

  改为: once one has money ,he can do what he wants (to do)

  二. 修饰语错位(misplaced modifiers)

  英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语置于句子不同的位置,句子的含义可能引起变化.对于这一点中国学生往往没有引起足够的重视,因而造成了不必要的误解.例1. i believe i can do it well and i will better know the world outside the campus.

  剖析:better位置不当,应置于句末.

  三. 句子不完整(sentence fragments)

  在口语中,交际双方可借助手势语气上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解.可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,笔者又想加些补充说明时发生.

  例1. there are many ways to know the society. for example by tv ,radio ,newspaper and so on .

  剖析:本句后半部分"for example by tv ,radio ,newspaper and so on .”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句.

  改为:there are many ways to know society ,for example ,by tv ,radio ,and newspaper.

  四. 悬垂修饰语(dangling modifiers)

  所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清.例如:at the age of ten, my grandfather died. 这句中"at the age of ten"只点出十岁时,但没有说明” 谁”十岁时.按一般推理不可能是my grandfather, 如果我们把这个悬垂修饰语改明确一点,全句就不那么费解了.

改为:

  when i was ten, my grandfather died.

  例1. to do well in college, good grades are essential.

  剖析:句中不定式短语 “to do well in college” 的逻辑主语不清楚.

  改为:

  to do well in college, a student needs good grades.

  五. 词性误用(misuse of parts of speech)

  “词性误用”常表现为:介词当动词用;形容词当副词用;名词当动词用等.

  例1. none can negative the importance of money.

  剖析:negative 系形容词,误作动词。

  改为:

  none can deny the importance of money.

  六. 指代不清(ambiguous reference of pronouns)

  指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。试看下面这一句:

  mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.

  (玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要她做她的伴娘。)

  读完上面这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,意思就一目了然了。这个句子可改为:

  mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

  例1. and we can also know the society by serving it yourself.

  剖析:句中人称代词we 和反身代词yourself指代不一致。改为:

  we can also know society by serving it ourselves.

  七. 不间断句子(run-on sentences)

  什么叫run-on sentence?请看下面的例句。

  例1. there are many ways we get to know the outside world.

  剖析:这个句子包含了两层完整的意思:“there are many ways.” 以及“we get to know the outside world.”。简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。

  改为:

  there are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或:

  there are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world

  八. 措词毛病(troubles in diction)

  diction 是指在特定的句子中怎样适当地选用词语的问题,囿于教学时间紧迫,教师平时在这方面花的时间往往极其有限,影响了学生在写作中没有养成良好的推敲,斟酌的习惯。他们往往随心所欲,拿来就用。所以作文中用词不当的错误比比皆是。

  例1. the increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.

  (农业方面化学物质使用的不断增加也造成了污染。)

  剖析:显然,考生把obstacles“障碍”,“障碍物”误作substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use (不断增加的使用)” 应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。

  改为:

  the abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution.

  九. 累赘(redundancy)

  言以简洁为贵。写句子没有一个多余的词;写段落没有一个无必要的句子。能用单词的不用词组;能用词组的不用从句或句子。如:

  in spite of the fact that he is lazy, i like him.

  本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同谓语从句,我们按照上述“能用词组的不用从句”可以改为:in spite of his laziness, i like him.

  例1. for the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.

  剖析:整个句子可以大大简化。

  改为:

  diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need.

  十. 不连贯(incoherence)

  不连贯是指一个句子前言不对后语,或是结构上不畅通。这也是考生常犯的毛病。

  例1. the fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.

  剖析:the fresh water 与逗号后的it 不连贯。it 与things 在数方面不一致。

  改为:

  fresh water is the most important thing in the world.

  十一. 综合性语言错误(comprehensive misusage)

  所谓“综合性语言错误”,是指除了上述十种错误以外,还有诸如时态,语态,标点符号,大小写等方面的错误。

  例1.today, money to everybody is very importance, our’s eat, cloth, live, go etc.

雅思写作中常见错误经典归纳|雅思写作关注细节|雅思大作文主体部分如何构思

雅思写作过程中,除了要掌握单词,逻辑等一些大的方面外,一些雅思写作细节也是值得关注的,为此小编特收集整理七个需要注意的雅思写作细节,分享给大家,希望对大家有所帮助,文中观点仅供参考。下面和小编一起来看看吧:

  雅思写作细节一、时间安排

  雅思写作要求考生在一个小时之内完成一篇至少150个单词的说明文或信件(20分钟)和一篇至少250个单词的议论文(40分钟)。考生需合理安排时间。

  疑问:先写Task 1还是Task 2?

  专家:建议考生先简后难,Task 1 尽量控制在20分钟内完成,然后安心写 Task 2。所以考生在考前一定要多练多写,掌握时间。

  雅思写作细节二、字数

  雅思写作字数是有下限的,但没有上限,所以很多考生都有疑问,到底多少单词的文章可以拿到高分。当然这没有绝对的限制,但据统计看来,大多数的高分小作文字数都在180左右,而大作文也在280左右。

  疑问:字数不够怎么办?

  专家:就Task 1而言,说明该考生对图表的分析能力还有待提高,多练习看图审题构思。如果Task 2字数不够,说明考生思路不开阔,论据无法扩展,考生需增加阅读量,多看和雅思写作话题相近的文章和精读雅思范文来掌握论据扩展方法。

  雅思写作细节三、标题与格式

  雅思的大小作文都不需要题目。雅思写作有两种格式:一是空行不空格式,即文章每段开头顶格写,段与段之间空一行;二是空格不空行,即除首段顶格外,文章每段开头空五个字符,段与段之间不空行。

  雅思写作细节四、机经

  雅思考试是非常系统而且专业的语言水平测试,它有着庞大的题库,有些题目也会重复出现,所以考生可以通过了解以往考题,即机经充分把握写作题型、话题等,为考试做好充分准备。

  疑问:要不要背范文?

  专家:背范文对提高考生的英语语言水平有很大帮助,但考生要明确背范文的目的是吸收其中的精华,如观点、语言、结构等,而不是在考试时遇到相同题目全盘照搬,否则被考官发现,将影响最后的得分。

  雅思写作细节五、评分

  大小作文在写作中所占比例大约是6比4。可见Task 2在最后写作得分中所占比重较大,但也不能忽略Task 1。

  疑问:卷面不整洁会否扣分?

  专家:潦草的字迹和不整洁的卷面将在一定程度上影响考官理解文章内容,从而影响得分。

  雅思写作细节六、时态图表作文通常会给出特定的时间,考生要根据此时间决定文章的时态。通常情况下有以下三种情况:过去时间用一般过去式,现在时间或没给出时间用一般现在式,预测用一般将来式。议论文根据内容确定时态。

  雅思写作细节七、学术类文章的一些文体注意事项

  让我们通过具体的例子来了解此类文章书写和文体的特点

  1. N2O wasn't produced until 1990, after which, its production grew rapidly.

  雅思文章为正式文体,所以尽量不要出现缩写,wasn't建议写成was not 。

  2. The bottles are first divided by color into clear, brown and clear ones which are then washed by high-pressurised water.

  拼写出现问题。在雅思写作中,英式和美式拼写都接受,但我们还是尽量做到两者不混淆。如or和our,se和ze。or和ze为美式拼写,而our和se为英式拼写。

  3. Nowadays, more and more people have private cars.

  more and more词汇过于简单,我们可以用an increasing number of来替代。

  4. Let all of us make great efforts to construct a more civilised China!

  此句子喊口号,抒发情感。雅思大作文为议论文,不需要任何形式的情感抒发和口号,所以这句话不适合这样的语言环境。

雅思写作中常见错误经典归纳|雅思写作关注细节|雅思大作文主体部分如何构思

要达到这样的要求,可以从以下两点出发:

  方法一 多学习一些出色的范文,看一下他人是如何看待这一问题的,他们是如何表达自己的观点的,他们又是如何来支持自己的观点的,以及他们的写法有河借鉴之处。

  方法二 多关心一下时事新闻,特别是要看一些英语新闻和报道,从中可了解世界的动态,最新的时事见解以及对时事的透彻分析,这些内容都有助于我们建立自己的观点和拓展我们的思路。

  在引言段确立了自己的观点之后,最主要的任务就是进行一个“brainstorming”,顾名思义,就是我们应尽量地想出一些与主体段落中每个小段相关的想法,来为主体段落的写作作好准备。

  先举例如下:

  Many people believe that women make better parents than men and that this is why they have greater role in raising children in most societies. Others claim that men are just as good as women at parenting.

  Write an essay expressing your point of view. Give reasons for your answer.

这是我们在构思时分析的一道题目,如前所述,主体段落分成两个小段:

  Main body:

  A women’s advantages and disadvantages of raising children

  B men’s advantages and disadvantages of raising children

  下面我们就来进行brainstorm,为它们找一些具体的论据:

  A women’s advantages and disadvantages of raising children

  1 women have more understanding of children’s needs.

  2 women can be more patient with young children.

  3 women can devote more time and energy to children.

  4 women tend to indulge their children and spoil them.

  B men’s advantages and disadvantages of raising children

  1 men can teach young children to be more creative.

  2 men often tell young children to be independent.

  3 men raise children by making them brave and decisive.

  4 men sometimes lose patience with children.

  透过这样的思路整理,主体段落的血肉已经非常丰满了,如果再加上作者的句子组织的话,这将是一篇极具条理性和逻辑性的文章了。

雅思写作中常见错误经典归纳|雅思写作关注细节|雅思大作文主体部分如何构思

雅思写作中同学们喜欢长难句,好像写出了一个三四行的句子自己的英文就登峰造极了!但其实不然。本文中雅思网将为大家提出一些让雅思作文“简洁漂亮”的建议,供大家参考。

  雅思写作漂亮建议一:避免空洞的单词和词组

  1.一些空洞的单词或词组根本不能为句子带来任何相关的或重要的信息,完全可以被删掉。

  比如:When all things are considered, young adults of today live more satisfying lives than those of their parents, in my opinion。

  这句话当中的“when all things are considered”和“in my opinion“都显得多余。完全可以去掉。改为:

  Young adults of today live more satisfying lives than their parents。

  2.有些空洞和繁琐的表达方式可以进行替换

  例如:Due to the fact that our grandparents were under an obligation to help their parents, they did not have the options that young people have at this point in time。

  “due to the fact that”就是一个很典型的繁琐的表达方式的例子,可以替换,简化为下面的表达方式:

  Because our grandparents were obligated to help their parents, they did not have the options that young people have now。

  雅思写作漂亮建议二:避免重复

  1.尽量避免重复使用同样的词汇。或者有的时候虽然词汇没有重复,但意思却有重复。这时候可以做一些简化的工作。

  例如下面这个例子:The farm my grandfather grew up on was large in size。

  large对一个farm来说就是size方面的large,所以in size可以去掉,改为:

  The farm my grandfather grew up on was large。

  更简洁的表达方式为:

  My grandfather grew up on a large farm。

  2.有时一个词组可以用一个更简单的单词来替换

  例如:My grandfather has said over and over again that he had to work on his parents' farm。

  这里的over and over again就可以改为repeatedly,显得更为简洁:

  My grandfather has said repeatedly that he had to work on his parents' farm。

  雅思写作漂亮建议三:选择最恰当的语法结构

  选择合适的语法结构可以使句子意思的表达更为精确和简练。虽然语法的多样性也很重要,但选择最恰当的语法结构仍然是更为重要的考虑因素。以下原则是在考虑选择何种语法结构时可以参考的原则:

  1.一个句子的主语和谓语动词应该能够反映句子中的最重要的意思。

  例如:The situation that resulted in my grandfather's not being able to study engineering was that his father needed help on the farm。

  从意思上来分析,上面这句话需要表达的重要的概念是“grandfather's not being able to study”,而在表达这个概念时,原句用的主语是situation,谓语动词是was,不能强调需要表达的重点概念,可以改为下面这句话:

  My grandfather couldn't study engineering because his father needed help on the farm。

  2.避免频繁使用“there be”结构

  例如下面的句子:There were 25 cows on the farm that my grandfather had to milk every day. It was hard work for my grandfather。

  可以改为:

  My grandfather worked hard. He had to milk 25 cows on the farm every day。

  更简洁的句式为:

  My grandfather worked hard milking 25 cows daily。

  3.把从句改为短语或单词。

  例如:Dairy cows were raised on the farm, which was located100 kilometers from the nearest university and was in an area that was remote。

  简介的表达方式为:

  The dairy farm was located in a remote area, 100 kilometers to the nearest university。

  4.仅在需要强调宾语而不是主语的时候,才使用被动语态。

  例如:In the fall, not only did the cows have to be milked, but also the hay was mowed and stacked by my grandfather's family。

  本句不够简洁的原因是本句的重心应该是“忙碌的家庭-my grandfather's family”,而使用了被动语态後,彷佛重心变成了cows和hay。下面的表达方式是主动语态,相对来说更简洁一些:

  In the fall, my grandfather's family not only milked the cow but also mowed and stacked the hay。

  5.用更为精确的一个动词来代替动词短语,

  例如:My grandfather didn't have time to stand around doing nothing with his school friends。

  Stand around doing nothing其实可以用一个动词来表达,即loiter:

  My grandfather didn't have time to loiter with his school friends。

  6.有时两句话的信息经过组合完全可以用一句话来简练地表达

  例如:Profits from the farm were not large. Sometimes they were too small to meet the expenses of running a farm. They were not sufficient to pay for a university degree。

  两句话的信息可以合并为下面这句更为简洁的句子:

  Profits from the farm were sometimes too small to meet operational expenses, let alone pay for a university degree。

雅思写作中常见错误经典归纳|雅思写作关注细节|雅思大作文主体部分如何构思

 

 

 

     

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