外教英语口语陪练,提高英语口语最好的方法
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雅思写作语法虚拟语气使用|雅思考试六大致命伤|雅思写作可避免错误|雅思写作核心准则

雅思写作语法虚拟语气使用|雅思考试六大致命伤|雅思写作可避免错误|雅思写作核心准则

雅思写作中,正确的使用多样化的句式有利于写作获取高分。在这些句式中,虚拟语气的使用是个具有挑战性的语法点,熟练使用虚拟语气可以使作文句式呈现层次性。下面新东方雅思小编为大家汇总了虚拟语气的使用方法。

  1.If sb had done sth(坏事), sb would never have done sth(好事).
  如果某人过去做了某事(坏事),那么他永远不可能做某事
  If Hugh Miller, after toiling all day in quarry (采石场), had devoted his evenings to rest and recreation, he would never have become a famous geologist.
  2.Sb would never have done sth(好事1) , never have done sth (好事2), if sb had done sth (坏事)
  某人永远不可能做某事, 永远不可能做某事, 如果某人过去做了某件坏事
  The celebrated mathematician, Edmund Stone, would never have published a mathematical dictionary, never have found the key to science of mathematics, if he had given his spare moments to idleness.
  3.Had sb done sth(坏事) , sb would never have done sth (好事)
  如果某人过去做了某件坏事,而不是去做某件好事,那么他永远不可能做某事(好事)
  Had the little Scotch lad, Ferguson, allowed the busy brain to go to sleep while he tended sheep on the hillside, instead of calculating the position of the stars by a string of beads, he would never have become a famous astronomer.
  对以上几个虚拟语气的应用范文
  Group discussion Google
  If Google had ignored the importance of group discussion, this high-tech company would never have achieved today's stunning success.
(If sb had done sth, he would never have done sth)
  Google, a once obscure, ailing / fragile company, would never have achieved today's stunning success, never have conquered so big a market share, if it had ignored the importance of group discussion.
  (sb would never have done sth , never have done sth , if sb had done sth)
  Had Google , a once small , obscure company , ignored the importance of group discussion ,the hi-tech tycoon would never , never have harvested today's overwhelming success . (压倒性的成功)
雅思写作语法虚拟语气使用|雅思考试六大致命伤|雅思写作可避免错误|雅思写作核心准则

 为了方便广大考生更好的复习,综合整理了雅思写作:中国考生的六大致命伤,以供各位考生考试复习参考,希望对考生复习有所帮助。

  近年来,由于留学和移民的人数越来越多,参加雅思考试的人数也逐年迅速增长。雅思考试分为四项:听力、阅读、写作和口语。在这四部分中,基本上所有的中国考生都一致认为写作最伤脑筋。究其原因,总结如下。
  雅思考生致命伤之一、心态
  从雅思考试四部分来看,考生一般认为阅读和听力具备大量的解题技巧,只要将这些解题技巧掌握了,提高就会很快。而口语也有一系列的应付方法和考场对策。但是,相对而言,写作却是英语综合能力的体现,考生认为短短几个月的时间内突飞猛进基本不现实,因此对写作抱一种恐慌心态。于是得过且过,认为只要写作将就就行,自己不如把时间多花在听力和阅读上来帮自己"拉分"。
  持此种观点的中国考生不在少数,造成这样一种情况:大多考生对写作热情不高,把大量时间和精力花在阅读听力的练习上,从而到头来写作总的来说都没练过几次,以至于找不到写作文的一种节奏和感觉。到了考场上,必然会因为发挥不出真实的写作水平导致分数不理想。
  雅思考生致命伤之二、英语基础薄弱
  许多参加雅思考试的考生并非英语专业的学生。另外还有一些高中生出去读本科,本来学得就不多。又或者有一些移民的考生,基本没学过英语。在这种情况下,总的说来,中国考生普遍英语水平比较低,基础比较薄弱。以这样的状态参加雅思考试很难达到雅思要求,尤其写作需要体现使用英语的综合能力。
  雅思考生致命伤之三、对写作套句和框架和盲从
一些培训机构和市面上的一些雅思写作资料针对雅思写作研究出了一系列的写作中能利用的万能套句和关于整篇文章的万能模板和框架。而这些套句和模板又偏偏受到考生的大力追捧和喜爱,皆因通过套句和模板简化了考生的写作任务,使写作变得相对轻松和容易,但是殊不知这些套句和模板有时候却是致命的。
  首先,套句和模板非常死板不灵活,导致考生观点和句子表达机械,脱节,给人一种别扭的感觉。另外,考官见识过许多所谓的模板文章,对此非常反感,因为模板文章体现的并不是考生的英语能力而是记忆能力。第三,套句和模板大多为一些空洞的语言,不具备实际意义。因此,这样的文章分数必然不会高。
  雅思考生致命伤之四、 思维方式和思维习惯
  有学者曾经提出过文化思维对话语模式的影响,认为西方人的思维是直线型,而东方人的思维是螺旋型的。西方人写文章的时候直接表达必定优于间接表达,并且说话人的立场保持一致,不会用无关的信息掩盖真实的观点。因此英语写作一般以直线展开。通常包含四个部分:引出、主题、支撑、结论。
  反之,中国人是螺旋式思维,写文章的时候,把思想发上出去了还要收回来,让它落在原来的起点上。这样的圆型思维导致了汉语表达的螺旋式结构,即以反复而又发展的螺旋形式对一种问题加以展开,尽量避免直接切入主题,喜欢用描述性语言进行迂回说明。这样的写作方式是不符合雅思写作要求的。
  雅思考生致命伤之五、 思路狭隘和观点匮乏
  雅思题目范围比较广泛,许多考生在面对写作题目时常会遇到知识的盲点,导致无从下笔。另外还有一种情况:有些考生平时懒于思考,未经过论点发散训练,这也导致在考试中因思路不开阔,思考不出足够的论点来支撑文章从而只有将同样的论点换表达方式反复的说。第三,平时对与写作有关的话题阅读不够,缺乏对论点的积累,造成考试当中拿到简单的话题也无点可用。
  雅思考生致命伤之六、 逻辑思维能力不足
  雅思写作第二部分要求根据一个大众广泛关注的有争议的话题写一篇议论文。议论文是作者对某个问题或某件事进行分析、评论,表明自己观点、立场、态度、看法和主张的一种文体。非常注重说理的准确性和逻辑性。
  中国考生在议论文写作中除了英语表达上的困难和对某些题目内容缺乏了解外,最值得关注的地方便在于论证的逻辑思维能力不足。主要体现在论据对论点支撑时段落的统一性和发散性不够。另外连接词使用混乱,句与句关系不明。这些问题的原因在于考生在以前的英语学习中注重的只是词汇和语法的积累和学习,对于逻辑思维的训练基本为零,因此难以获得雅思写作高分。
  总之,雅思写作是一个人语言使用能力最真实的反映。针对以上所述问题,应该积极努力地寻求一些合适、合理的解决方法,争取能让考生能真正提高写作水平和能力。
雅思写作语法虚拟语气使用|雅思考试六大致命伤|雅思写作可避免错误|雅思写作核心准则

雅思写作中同学们常常会犯这样或那样的错误,有些错误是不自知的,需要长期的老师指导才能改正,有些错误是同学们自己易错的,写作时多注意多积累即可避免,下面就是雅思频道为大家收集整理的解析雅思写作中常见的两类失误,供大家参考。

  雅思写作可避免错误(1)表达单一,词不达意
  我们知道文章是思想的载体,而词是这个载体的基本组成要素。没有单词,就无法准确地表达思想。由于所掌握的单词有限,往往使学生感到自己“满腹的心里话不知怎么说”,为了写完一篇250多字的作文,只能搜肠刮肚,勉强拼凑,结果使思路受到限制,写出来的句子总是不能表达出自己的本来意图,文章主题反倒成了载体的奴隶。为了弥补词汇量的不足,一些学生就把一些熟悉的单词、简单的句子结构重复使用来避免犯错而使文章显得单调、呆板,甚至观点和见解也因此大打折扣。对单词含义的一知半解,使得学生在写作时生搬硬套。把汉语成语硬生生地逐字对译,如:把“成竹在胸”译成“have a bamboo tree in my heart”;或者一些短语直译,如:把“不少青年妇女没文化”译成“Many young women have no culture.”,令人啼笑皆非。
  当然,这一问题主要存在于英语水平较差的同学中。而更多学员中存在的问题是不能准确把握一些词汇的具体含义及一些意思相近的词之间的一些区别,进而导致在写作中只是简单得根据自己所知道的该词的意思生硬的加在自己的习作中,而不去考虑该词在整篇文章中是否合适,从而使自己的作文有了浓重的Chinglish的味道。雅思写作可避免错误(2)词汇匮乏,作文索然无味
  由于学员掌握的词汇不足,所以在写作文时,往往是一个词在文中不断的重复出现,结果使得自己的作文读起来很索然无味。如有的学生只知道“促进”一词是improve,于是在写作时,只要是“促进”,他就把improve一词搬上去,殊不知,“促进”一词还可以用promote, enhance, advance, facilitate, strengthen 等词表达。但这并不意味着这几个词可以随时互换,学生在用的时候也要根据具体的情景而选择具体的词。
  此外,有的学生在运用词组时总是不能准确把握其固定搭配,尤其是一些动词词组中具体搭配的介词等小品词,结果写出来的句子令人产生误解。这方面的问题似乎在学员中更加普遍。下面我们就以我们论坛中的一篇习作为例:
  I do not agree with the above statement, in my opinion, both of the earlier times technological inventions and recent times technological inventions make human lives changed a lot, we are not supposed to say ether earlier ones or the later ones of technology is more important.
  这是作文的第一段,而第一句的agree with the above statement 就是一个明显的错误,agree with 是同意某人的意思,后接sb.,而 agree about后接 sth.是同意某种观点的意思。仅仅是一个介词的错误运用,也许就会影响你的作文分数。所以,这一问题应值得学员注意。
雅思写作语法虚拟语气使用|雅思考试六大致命伤|雅思写作可避免错误|雅思写作核心准则

 雅思写作一直都是中国考生的弱项,The Elements of Style一书中,作者提到了关于英文写作的10个核心准则一起来学习一下。

  Elementary principles of composition
  1. Make the paragraph the unit of composition: one paragraph to each topic
  不同的段落构成文章,每个段落仅传递一个观点
  2. As a rule, begin each paragraph with a topic sentence; end it in conformity with the beginning
  规则:每个段落均以主题句开头,并且首尾呼应。
  A. the topic sentence comes at or near the beginning;
  主题句前置
  B. the succeeding sentences explain or establish or develop the statement made in the topic sentence;
  段落围绕主题句展开,后面的句子对主题句进行展开解释
  C. the final sentence either emphasizes the thought of the topic sentence or states some important consequence.
  末尾句或者对主题句进行强调,或者阐述主题句带来的结果。
  3. Use the active voice
  主动句永远比被动句直接有力
  Eg: There were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground
  = Dead leaves covered the ground. (清晰生动)
  Eg: The reason that he left college was that his health became impaired.
  = Failing health compelled him to leave college. (简洁有力)
Eg: It was not long before he was very sorry that he had said what he had.
  = He soon repented his words. (简洁有力)
  4. Put statements in positive form
  以肯定的形式表达否定的意思, 避免使用平淡、毫无色彩,犹豫不决和含糊其辞的语言。
  Eg:He was not very often on time.
  = He usually came late.
  Eg: He did not think that studying Latin was much use.
  = He thought the study of Latin useless.
  Eg: The taming of the Shrew is rather weak in spots. Shakespeare does not portray Katharine as a very admirable character, nor does Bianca remain long in memory as an important character in Shakespeare’s works.
  = The women in The Taming of the Shrew are unattractive. Katharine is disagreeable, Bianca insignificant.
  5. Omit needless words
  删除冗词
  Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that every word tell.
  有力的写作一定简洁。
  Owing to the fact that
  =Since (because)
  In spite of the fact that
  =Though (although)
  Call your attention to the fact that
  =Remind you (notify you)
  The fact that he had not succeeded
  =His failure
  6. Avoid a succession of loose sentences
  别写流水账,找找语言的逻辑关系,通过who, which, when, where, and while 这些词把句子串起来。
  7. Express co-ordinate ideas in similar form
  Parallel structure 平行结构讲究对称美:内容对等,结构一致。
  Eg: Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, while now the laboratory method is employed.
  Parallel structure: Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method; now it is taught by the laboratory method.
  8. Keep related words together
  词的位置决定词的关系,所以遵循‘物以类聚’,意思关联紧密的词放在一块。
  A: 主谓之间不分割,补充信息需前置
  Eg: Wordsworth, in the fifth book of The Excursion, gives a minute description of this church.
  Eg: In the fifth book of the Excursion, Wordsworth gives a minute description of this church. (状语前置,主谓毗邻)
  B:关系代词紧随先行词出现
  Eg: There was a look in his eye that boded mischief.
  Eg: In his eye was a look that boded mischief. (名词look先行,关系词that紧随)
  9. In summaries, keep to one tense
  总结通常使用现在时态,如果使用过去时,请保持时态一致。
  10. Place the emphatic words of a sentence at the end
  欲擒故纵的圆周句(periodic sentence)中,强调信息后置。
  Eg: Four centuries ago, Christopher Columbus, one of the Italian mariners whom the decline of their own republics had put at the service of the world and of adventure, seeking for Spain a westward passage to the Indies as setoff against the achievements of Portuguese discoverers, lighted on America.
  Eg: With these hopes and in this belief I would urge you, laying aside all hindrance, thrusting away all private aims, to devote yourselves unswervingly and unflinchingly to the vigorous and successful prosecution of this war.
雅思写作语法虚拟语气使用|雅思考试六大致命伤|雅思写作可避免错误|雅思写作核心准则

 

 

 

     

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