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雅思阅读做题技巧了解作者意图|雅思阅读文章出处梳理|雅思阅读需小心的问题

雅思阅读做题技巧了解作者意图|雅思阅读文章出处梳理|雅思阅读需小心的问题

雅思阅读,除了良好的词汇语法基础,更需要些许考试应对技巧,下面新东方网雅思频道为大家整理雅思阅读做题技巧供同学们参考。

  雅思阅读做题技巧——从直接用词来直接判断作者的立场
  在文章当中,作者的立场主要分为三类:赞成、反对或中立。这需要我们从文章中找出一些旗帜鲜明的词来帮助我们判定:例如有一篇介绍GMOs(转基因生物)的文章中,第一句话是:Genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) are a double-edged sword(双刃剑)。这句话是全文或至少是全段的主题句,表明出题者的观点是中立的,认为转基因生物给人类带来益处的同时也带来了危害。在阅读这类文章时,考生应注意把住这两方面的论据在心里加以分类。
  雅思阅读做题技巧——通过理解转折词来看作者的态度
  作者的观点和态度往往在雅思的文章中有一个先扬后抑的过程,会通过一些转折词表现出来,前面会列出很多幌子来迷惑考生。这些常用的有:although,though,while,on the other hand,however,rather,but,despite,in spite of等。在阅读中,表示转折的词是猜测单词词义的很好的线索。另外,在一句话中,转折词后的部分往往是出题者表达的重点,所强调的东西。如果时间紧张的话,考生甚至可以跳过这些词前面的部分,直接阅读后半句话,因为这常常是问题涉及到的。
  雅思阅读做题技巧——通过原因和结果推测作者的意图
  在阅读过程中,了解出题者解释某个事件或情况的原因是很重要的。因果关系是帮助考生理解文章的线索之一。因此,考生应掌握下列词汇。解释原因的:because,because of,due to,result from,as a result of,be a consequence of,be attributed to;表示结果的:as a result,result in,lead to,cause,contributed to。
雅思阅读做题技巧了解作者意图|雅思阅读文章出处梳理|雅思阅读需小心的问题

分析发现,雅思阅读考试A类文章大多选自国外人文类、经济类和科学类的知名报纸、杂志或政府各部门(UK及世界各国) 的社会发展报告。如:经济学家杂志Economist,金融时报(Financial Times), 卫报(Guardian) ,美国国家地理杂志(National Geographic), New Scientist, Science, Popular Science 和 Nature等。

  G类文章从09年5月份开始,考察的内容导向有所变化,从原来的以“培训”为导向逐步转变为以“工作”为导向。这一背景材料的转变值得引起考生的关注。以下是摘录自雅思考试官方网站的相关内容:
  ‘From 1 May 2009, we are making a small but important change to the General Training Reading paper.
  Currently, Section 2 of the General Training Reading paper focuses on the training context. From 1 May 2009, this section will focus on the work context (e.g. applying for jobs, company policies, pay and conditions, workplace facilities, staff development etc).The General Training module is increasingly recognised by employers, professional bodies and immigration authorities. This change will ensure that the module will more closely meet the needs of candidates who take IELTS for employment or immigration purposes.
  The other sections of the General Training Reading paper will remain unchanged.’
  在了解了以上阅读考试的题源出处之后,考生平时进行泛读的时候,可以多选择上面提到的报刊杂志的内容作为材料。这样可以在帮助考生扩大相关背景知识的同时,使得考生能够了解雅思阅读文章的行文风格和常见结构。
  G类的考生在平常准备考试的过程中一定要重视这个自09年5月1日起开始的 ‘small but important’的变化。重点补充一些工作类型的文章,例如申请工作、公司政策、工作环境等等。并且有条件的话,多做一些关于商务英语和职场英语方面的训练。
  当然,这里老师要向考生说明的是,如一些考试文章在上述网站上搜索起来有困难,考生可以在维京百科上搜索相关的词条内容。拿澳洲考拉举个例子,这是我们雅思考试中考过的有关澳洲的较有特色的动物。很多考生对于这个名字不陌生,但是具体细节谈论起来,相关的知识就比较匮乏了。那么现在只要在搜索框内输入‘Koala’则会出现很多相关的内容,以下仅为部分摘录,
  The koala is found in coastal regions of eastern and southern Australia, from near Adelaide to the southern part of Cape York Peninsula. Populations also extend for considerable distances inland in regions with enough moisture to support suitable woodlands. The koala is not found in Tasmania or Western Australia.
  通过此段,考生可以大致了解考拉的分布主要在澳洲东部及南部沿海地区,从阿德莱德到约克角半岛南部。而在塔斯马尼亚及西澳地区则没有发现考拉。
  A baby koala is referred to as a joey and is hairless, blind, and earless. At birth the joey, only a quarter of an inch long, crawls into the downward-facing pouch on the mother's belly (which is closed by a drawstring-like muscle that the mother can tighten at will) and attaches itself to one of the two teats.
  这一段主要介绍考拉宝宝的主要情况,出生时候只有四分之一英寸长,生活在妈妈的育儿袋里。
  The koala lives almost entirely on eucalypt leaves. This is likely to be an evolutionary adaptation that takes advantage of an otherwise unfilled ecological niche, since eucalypt leaves are low in protein, high in indigestible substances, and contain phenolic and terpene compounds that are toxic to most species. Like wombats and sloths, the koala has a very low metabolic rate for a mammal and rests motionless for about 16 to 18 hours a day, sleeping most of that time.
  本段讲到考拉的饮食几乎完全依赖桉树叶生存,并且考拉的新陈代谢非常慢,一天可以16-18个小时不动。
  建议考生在搜索的时候选用英文,在平时学习背景知识的时候,不断扩大对于相关这一主题的词汇量。这样在考试当中遇见相关背景的文章的时候不至于出现因生词过多造成理解误差的情况,同时也可以在考试当中节省阅读时间,保证阅读速度。
雅思阅读做题技巧了解作者意图|雅思阅读文章出处梳理|雅思阅读需小心的问题

备考雅思,很多同学容易忽略雅思阅读单项的练习。因为阅读考试与中国传统的英文考试有相似之处,判断题配对题,很多雅思阅读题型都是我们之前见到过的。然而这种认知不一定准确,在我们的培训当中,发现不少这样的学员,自认为阅读不错,实际考出来的分数只有22分左右,甚至会更低。ETS对阅读高水平(High level)的评定标准是22-30分。而事实上,阅读如果达不到25分以上,总分想要过百会比较困难,因为这相当于把挣分的压力转移到了大部分人比较弱的听力、口语、写作上面。由此可见,阅读对于雅思取得高分成绩是一种保证。

  那么为什么很多自认为阅读不错的考生不一定能在这一部分熠熠生辉呢?这是因为雅思阅读考试存在一些“绊脚绳”。雅思阅读“绊脚绳”一:细节题考查精确定位。雅思阅读中的细节题其实不难,但前提是定位的点要对。比如下面这个例题:
  Two species of deer have been prevalent in the Puget Sound area of Washington State in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The black-tailed deer, a lowland, west-side cousin of the mule deer of eastern Washington, is now the most common. The other species, the Columbian white-tailed deer, in earlier times was common in the open prairie country, it is now restricted to the low, marshy islands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.
  According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the white-tailed deer of Puget Sound?
  A. It is native to lowlands and marshes.
  B. It is more closely related to the mule deer of eastern Washington than to other types of deer.
  C. It has replaced the black-tailed deer in the open prairie.
  D. It no longer lives in a particular type of habitat that it once occupied.
  这是一个典型的细节题,在该题题干中,有的考生会选择Puget Sound作为关键词回原文定位,因为它是专有名词,在文中会比较显眼;但是如果一旦选择了这个地名,势必会定位在该段的第一句话,细节题往往是定位在哪句就在哪句找答案,这样的话考生是选不出正确答案的,因为定位不精确。其实正确的关键词应该是white-tailed deer,这个用连字符连接的词在文章中也是比较醒目的,按该词定位应是该段最后一句话。所以根据它的意思应该选D项。其中A项与原句意思不符,B和C都与定位句信息无关。我们再来看另外一个否定事实细节题的例子:
  Plant communities assemble themselves flexibly, and their structure depends on the particular history of the area. Ecologists use the term "succession" to refer to the changes that happen in plant communities and ecosystems over time. The first community in a succession is called a pioneer community, while the long-lived community at the end of succession is called a climax community. Pioneer and successional plant communities are said to change over periods from 1 to 500 years. These changes-in plant numbers and the mix of species-are cumulative. Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.
  According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true of climax communities?
  A. They occur at the end of a succession.
  B. They last longer than any other type of community.
  C. The numbers of plants in them and the mix of species do not change
  D. They remain stable for at least 500 years at a time.
  这个题大家都会选择用climax communities去定位,但在定位过程中会出现很多问题。首先考生要学会跳跃式定位,即根据文章中特殊的标点符号以及最醒目的词来搜索我们真正需要的关键词。文中的particular是加了阴影的,succession是在引号里面的,都非常醒目,通过看这两个词我们会发现它们附近没有我们需要的东西;再比较突出的就是数字及破折号,在500的前方有a climax community,但它是单数,与题干关键词不完全匹配,细节题讲究的是精确定位,所以我们应该选择500后方的Climax communities,即该段的最后一句话。否定事实细节题的出题思路有两种:一是无中生有,即根据定位点的内容,四个选项只有一个没有提到,这种思路多适用于选项比较简短的题目;二是张冠李戴,即根据定位点的内容表述,只有一个选项与之矛盾,这种思路多适应于选项比较长的题目。就这个例题而言,根据定位的最后一句话,从表述上来说跟它相关的只有C和D两个选项,D项的意思与原句相符,而C项与原句矛盾,所以正确答案是C。
  综上所述,做阅读的细节题,最重要的一点就是要尽量地去精确定位。
  雅思阅读“绊脚绳”: 无方向中隐藏方向。阅读考试中绝大部分题目都是对应具体段落的,这会为考生节省很多时间。但是也不排除有少量题目的范围比较大或比较模糊,考生在寻找答案时难免一头雾水,费时费力。其实这些看似没有明确定位方向的题目都是暗藏玄机的。下面我们就来看一个例子:
  Wind power has a significant cost advantage over nuclear power and has become competitive with coal-fired power plants in many places. With new technological advances and mass production, projected cost declines should make wind power one of the world's cheapest ways to produce electricity. In the long run, electricity from large wind farms in remote areas might be used to make hydrogen gas from water during periods when there is less than peak demand for electricity. The hydrogen gas could then be fed into a storage system and used to generate electricity when additional or backup power is needed.
  Wind power is most economical in areas with steady winds. In areas where the wind dies down, backup electricity from a utility company or from an energy storage system becomes necessary. Backup power could also be provided by linking wind farms with a solar cell, with conventional or pumped-storage hydropower, or with efficient natural-gas-burning turbines. Some drawbacks to wind farms include visual pollution and noise, although these can be overcome by improving their design and locating them in isolated areas.
雅思阅读做题技巧了解作者意图|雅思阅读文章出处梳理|雅思阅读需小心的问题

 

 

 

     

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